Peer-Reviewed Publications

Journal Articles

  • Individual- and community-level factors associated with voluntary participation. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. Lam, M., Grasse, N., & McDougle, L. (accepted).

    • [Abstract]: Voluntary participation in local groups or organizations varies by individual and across communities. Few studies examine the influence of structural resources on voluntary participation, with prior studies often considering it a single, binary action. Drawing from three data sources, we examined the extent to which individual-level and community-level factors—including the geographic presence of nonprofit organizations—were associated with voluntary participation. We model participation as two distinct actions and estimate the likelihood of respondents participating in one organization compared to the likelihood of participating in multiple organizations. We found individual characteristics such as homeownership, marriage, and better health were associated with participation in only one group or organization. Identifying as White, having some college education, more children per household, and church attendance were positively associated with participating in one group or organization and subsequent groups. At the community level, nonprofit organizations’ presence was positively associated with voluntary participation.

  • On teaching philanthropy. Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing. McDougle, L. (online first).

    • Featured on podcast of Chaire Philanthropie de l'ESSEC (ESSEC Business School; Paris, France).

    • [Abstract]: This commentary focuses on the teaching of philanthropy using an innovative pedagogy known as experiential philanthropy. Experiential philanthropy allows students to study social issues and nonprofit organizations and then make decisions about awarding funds to nonprofits working to address the issues they learned about. The pedagogy is considered to be transformative for students across a variety of disciplines (e.g., business administration, marketing, public administration, and social work). In this commentary, I raise an important consideration for those who teach philanthropy using the pedagogy and I conclude by issuing a call to action.

  • Service-learning in higher education and prosocial identity formation. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. McDougle, L., & Li, H. (online first).

    • [Abstract]: For most nonprofits, their effectiveness, sustainability, and survival all depend on the willingness of individuals to behave in prosocial ways, e.g., by giving time, money, and/or resources to various organizations and causes. Scholars have, therefore, long sought to identify predictors of prosocial behaviors; and, one consistently significant variable in this quest has been prosocial role-identity. Indeed, the strength of this identity, studies have shown, positively predicts participation in a variety of prosocial activities. Despite this significance, research on service-learning, a widely utilized pedagogical practice intended to prepare prosocially active and engaged citizens, has been largely disconnected from the literature on identity motivated behavior. Yet, this literature provides a strong conceptual foundation for understanding why, when, how, and for whom participation in service-learning will be associated with positive changes in prosocial identities—and, ultimately sustained participation in role-related prosocial behaviors. In this article, we connect these literatures and propose a model.

  • Experiential philanthropy in public affairs education: Learning for lives of giving? Journal of Public Affairs Education. McDougle, L., Li, H., & Rossi, G. (online first).

    • [Abstract]: Globally, public affairs programs are designed to meet dual educational purposes. On the one hand, these professional degree programs are intended to educate students for careers in service to the public. On the other hand, these programs are also intended to educate students about our common responsibility to contribute to the betterment of society through civic participation and engagement. Not surprisingly, then, public affairs programs often include a curriculum emphasis on philanthropy; and, as a means of teaching philanthropy, experiential philanthropy has become an increasingly popular pedagogical strategy. Despite growing use of the pedagogy cross-nationally and consistent evidence of its short-term efficacy, there has been limited evidence of the pedagogy’s long-term impact. Therefore, in this study, we explore whether experiential philanthropy, as a pedagogical strategy within public affairs programs in the US and China, is associated with long-term philanthropic and prosocial outcomes of former course participants.

  • Exploring individual predictors of variation in public awareness of expressive and instrumental nonprofit brands. Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing. Hamidullah, M., Yun, C., McDougle, L., Shon, J., Yang, H., & Davis, A. (2021)

    • [Abstract]: Expressive and instrumental functions provide a way to classify activities that take place in the nonprofit sector. These functions also provide a way to better understand individual's philanthropic involvement with certain types of nonprofit organizations. Despite the usefulness of these classifications, only a few studies have explored demographic, social, and ideological differences in individuals' philanthropic involvement along expressive and instrumental dimensions; and, no studies have explored differences in public awareness of nonprofits along these dimensions. Such awareness, though, could likely be an important precursor to an individual's philanthropic involvement. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore whether variables known to be associated with variation in philanthropic involvement are also associated with variation in awareness of, what we categorize as, expressive and instrumental nonprofit brands. Using data from a survey of public awareness of, and attitudes toward, nonprofit organizations in San Diego County (n=1002), our findings show that individuals are more aware of instrumental nonprofit brands than they are of expressive nonprofit brands. However, there are important individual differences to consider. We discuss the theoretical relevance of our findings and offer several practical recommendations for nonprofit administrators.

  • Incorporating diversity into undergraduate nonprofit education: Can reading diverse narratives increase students’ perspective-taking capacity? Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership. Jones, J., McDougle, L., & Smith, S. (2021)

    • [Abstract]: Although the use of narratives has been shown to increase students’ ability to empathize, which can be an indicator of their perspective-taking ability, no studies have focused on the use of narratives specifically within the context of nonprofit management education. In this study, we tested a pedagogical technique designed to increase students’ perspective-taking capacity. Specifically, we incorporated reading assignments of personal narratives by a diverse body of nonprofit leaders into two undergraduate nonprofit management courses: one an in-person course at a large public land-grant university in the Southeastern United States (n=85) and the other an online course at a large public university in the Northeastern United States (n = 20). We conducted pre- and postinstruction assessments to explore whether the use of these narratives enhanced students’ empathy and perspective-taking abilities. Our findings indicate that narratives are effective in improving perspective-taking skills and can be effective in both online courses and in-person courses. These findings should be of interest to nonprofit management educators.

  • An analysis of gender differences in public administration doctoral dissertation research. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 26(1), 73-95. Yun, J., Hamidullah, M., & McDougle, L. (2019).

    • [Abstract]: Using data provided in ProQuest: Dissertations and Theses: Global (PQDTGlobal) database from 1890 to 2016, in this study we explore gender differences in historical and contemporary trends in public administration doctoral dissertation research in the United States. Our analysis reveals that not only has the number of women completing doctoral dissertations in public administration increased throughout the years but gender differences also exist relating to the subject matter that public administration doctoral students have focused on in their dissertations. Moreover, we find gender differences in the types of institutions (public, nonprofit, or for-profit) where public administration doctoral students receive their degrees.

  • Experiential philanthropy in China. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 26(2), 205-227. Li, H., McDougle, L., & Gupta, A. (2019).

    • [Abstract]: Experiential philanthropy is a form of service-learning where students are provided with money (generally from a foundation) to distribute to nonprofit organizations. The pedagogy is intended to teach students not only about philanthropy but also about how to evaluate philanthropic responses to social issues. In recent years, scholars have begun to explore how an experiential approach to the philanthropic process could result in a more philanthropically engaged and committed citizenry. This research has provided promising evidence of the efficacy of experiential philanthropy as a pedagogic strategy – particularly within higher education. Despite its effectiveness, research on experiential philanthropy has focused primarily on the US. As such, we have no knowledge of the effectiveness of this pedagogic strategy in other regions of the world – especially in emerging philanthropic regions such as China. Therefore, using three semesters of original pre- and post-course survey data (including quantitative and qualitative responses) obtained from students enrolled in an Introduction to Nonprofit Management course at a university in northeast China, this study addresses the following question: To what extent does experiential philanthropy enhance Chinese students’ understanding of, and commitment to, philanthropy?

  • Philanthropy can be learned: A qualitative study exploring student perceptions of the effectiveness of experiential philanthropy. Philanthropy and Education, 2(2), 29-52. Li, H., Xu, C., & McDougle, L. (2019).

    • [Abstract]: Experiential philanthropy is an innovative service-learning pedagogy that allows students to study social problems and nonprofit organizations and then make decisions about investing funds into nonprofits working to address these problems. Although prior research has shown that instructors’ use of experiential philanthropy is positively associated with a number of student learning outcomes, few studies have employed in-depth qualitative methods to assess the effectiveness of experiential philanthropy—especially from the perspective of students. Therefore, in this study, we utilize computer-assisted technologies to mine data from students (n=973) concerning their perceptions about participating in an experiential philanthropy course. Overall, our results show that similar to the results of prior research, students do believe that experiential philanthropy enhances their learning as well as their willingness to contribute to their community. However, for some students, engaging in experiential philanthropy is less likely to enhance their desire to contribute monetarily to nonprofit organizations and more likely to enhance their desire to contribute in the form of voluntary action.

  • Revenue structure and spending behavior in nonprofit organizations. American Review of Public Administration, 49(6), 662-874. Shon, J., Hamidullah, M., & McDougle, L. (2019).

    • [Abstract]: Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) rely on multiple funding sources to meet organizational needs; and, heavy reliance on any one revenue source can limit an NPO’s ability to allocate funding. As such, in this study, we examine the association between funding source and spending behavior in a national sample of NPOs from 2008 to 2012. Our sample consists of 51,812 observations from 16,035 unique NPOs. Using Tobit maximum likelihood estimation, we find that NPOs that rely on, both, restricted and nonrestricted revenue sources are more limited in their ability to spend on administrative needs, whereas donation income restricts personnel spending of compensation. Revenue diversification, though, can help NPOs overcome this limitation and can provide NPOs with greater spending flexibility. Our findings also show, however, that these results differ for NPO hospitals and universities.

  • Teaching social justice in nonprofit management education: A critical pedagogy and strategy. Administrative Theory and Praxis, 41(4), 405-423. Mason, D., McDougle, L., & Jones, J. (2019).

    • [Abstract]: Within higher education, there is mounting pressure for increased discussions of diversity, inclusion, and social justice. Although these topics are particularly relevant to nonprofit management education (NME), instructors have expressed uncertainty about how they should proceed in incorporating these topics into their courses. Here, we argue a critical pedagogy framework can support instructors to address effectively topics of diversity, inclusion, and social justice within their classes. We identify three different but complementary critical pedagogical strategies that NME instructors can adopt in order to do so. We also provide resources for instructors and conclude with suggestions for future research.

  • Individual- and contextual-level factors affecting the use of social support services among older adults. Journal of Social Service Research, 44(1), 108-118. McDougle, L., Meyer, S., & Handy, F. (2018).

    • [Abstract]: By 2060, the number of Americans aged 65 and older is expected to more than double, while the number of Americans aged 85 and older is expected to nearly triple. As the nation’s aging population grows, older adults will need to rely on social support services, such as transportation and housing services, in order to remain active and lead independent lives. In this study, we use data collected from the elderly supplement of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey (SPHHS) (n=3,042) to explore the relationship between the availability of elderly-specific social service providers and utilization of social support services among older adults. We find that while the number of elderly-specific social service providers can increase use of social support services among older adults, its impact is relatively minimal. We find that individual factors, instead, are stronger predictors of service use. This is a finding that should be particularly encouraging for elder care providers who may not have the resources needed to undertake large structural changes (like building new facilities). Still, future research should explore how the availability of a broader range of elderly-specific social services (than explored in this study) impacts use.

  • Information source reliance and charitable giving decisions. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 27(4), 549-560. Li, H., & McDougle, L. (2017).

    • [Abstract]: This study examines the relationship between donor reliance on information and donors’ subsequent charitable giving decisions of both time and money. To examine this relationship, we utilize data from an original survey of residents in San Diego County, California (n=1,002), asking donors about their charitable activities and the information sources that they use to facilitate their charitable decisions. Our findings reveal that relying on information from both nonprofit accrediting agencies and personal experiences positively influences donors’ decision to give time to nonprofit organizations (that is, volunteer), but has no significant impact on decisions to give money. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  • Can philanthropy be taught? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 46(2), 330-351. McDougle, L., McDonald, D., Li, H., McIntyre Miller, W., & Xu, C. (2017).

    • [Abstract]: In recent years, colleges and universities have begun investing significant resources into an innovative pedagogy known as experiential philanthropy. The pedagogy is considered to be a form of service-learning. It is defined as a learning approach that provides students with opportunities to study social problems and nonprofit organizations and then make decisions about investing funds in them. Experiential philanthropy is intended to integrate academic learning with community engagement by teaching students not only about the practice of philanthropy but also how to evaluate philanthropic responses to social issues. Despite this intent, there has been scant evidence demonstrating that this type of pedagogic instruction has quantifiable impacts on students’ learning or their personal development. Therefore, this study explores learning and development outcomes associated with experiential philanthropy and examines the efficacy of experiential philanthropy as a pedagogic strategy within higher education. Essentially, we seek to answer the question, Can philanthropy be taught?

  • Connecting through giving: Understanding the impact of the Mayerson Student Philanthropy Project. Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership, 7(2), 110-122. McDonald, D., McIntyre Miller, W., & McDougle, L. (2017).

    • [Abstract]: Although student philanthropy is a fast-growing pedagogical approach to service learning, research is limited on the effectiveness of student philanthropy as a teaching tool. This article introduces the concept of student philanthropy and provides an analysis of eight semesters of pre- and postcourse student surveys from Northern Kentucky University’s Mayerson Student Philanthropy Project (n=864). The analysis focuses on the efficacy of student philanthropy in terms of student community engagement. The findings indicate that students who participate in student philanthropy are significantly more likely to be aware of social problems and nonprofit organizations in their community.

  • Religious and secular coping strategies and mortality risk among older adults. Social Indicators Research, 125(2), 677-694. McDougle, L., Walk, M., Konrath, S., & Handy, F. (2016).

    • [Abstract]: Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the purpose of this study is twofold. First, the study identifies coping strategies used by older adults. Second, the study examines the impact of older adults’ chosen coping strategies on mortality reduction. The study focuses specifically on differences in the use of religious and secular coping strategies among this population. The findings suggest that although coping strategies differ between those who self-classify as religious and those who self-classify as nonreligious, for both groups social approaches to coping (e.g., attending church and volunteering) are more likely than individual approaches (e.g., praying or active/passive coping) to reduce the risk of mortality. The most efficacious coping strategies, however, are those matched to characteristics of the individual.

  • The accuracy and reliability of the Core Files for studying nonprofit location. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 44(3), 609-624. McDougle, L. (2015).

    • [Abstract]: Studies show that the distribution of nonprofits varies considerably across communities. Affluent communities tend to have ample nonprofit resources and highly diverse nonprofit landscapes, whereas low-income communities often lack the variety of nonprofits found within wealthier areas. As a result of these differences, scholars have suggested that geographic unevenness in the presence of nonprofits may lead to extreme inequities and inefficiencies in how nonprofit services are accessed and administered. Although these concerns certainly warrant serious attention, several limitations have been acknowledged with the National Center for Charitable Statistic’s (NCCS) Core Financial Files—which have been the primary data source used to generate findings on geographic dimensions of the nonprofit sector in the United States. This research note examines the accuracy of the information in the Core Files after adjustments for each of these limitations.

  • Community variation in the financial health of nonprofit organizations: An examination of organizational and contextual effects. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(3), 500-525. Lam, M., & McDougle, L. (2015).

    • [Abstract]: Nonprofit human services organizations (HSOs) provide vital services to communities. Yet studies show that the density of these nonprofits varies from one community to the next, often with fewer quantities located in vulnerable communities. These findings have led to concerns regarding the ability of the human services subsector to meet community needs. In this article, however, we make the argument that organizational density is a limited indicator of a sector’s ability to provide services, and suggest that financial health is a more robust indicator. We model six measures of financial health as conceptualized by Bowman and examine relationships between these measures and indicators of community vulnerability. Our results indicate that variation exists in four of our six outcome measures (equity ratio, months of spending, mark up, and months of liquidity), and that contextual effects (e.g., being located in a minority or low-mobility community) partially explain these variances.

  • The influence of information costs on donor decision-making. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 24(4), 465-485. McDougle, L., & Handy, F. (2014).

    • [Abstract]: This article explores whether an individual’s information costs influence the information-gathering strategies that he or she turns to prior to donating to a nonprofit. The data for the study come from a telephone survey of residents in a large county in southern California (n=1,002). The sample was selected using random-digit-dialing technology and a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system. A series of binomial logit models revealed that information costs significantly influenced the information-gathering strategies individuals turned to in order to learn about nonprofit performance prior to making a donation. Results also revealed that greater confidence in nonprofits did not lead individuals to forgo efforts to obtain information on nonprofit performance altogether. The findings from this study suggest that it is important for nonprofit administrators to recognize, and then take into account, that not all individuals will rely on the same information sources when seeking to learn about nonprofit performance.

  • Factors predicting student environmental volunteerism in the US and South Korea. Journal of Environmental Planning & Management, 58(5), 837-854. McDougle, L., Handy, F., Katz-Gerro, T., Greenspan, I., & Lee, H. (2014).

    • [Abstract]: This research compares environmental volunteering among students in South Korea and the US (n=3612). Given differing environmental histories of these countries, we explore whether and to what extent volunteer proclivity and intensity varies, and potential factors that explain existing variation. Findings suggest that American students are more likely to volunteer for, and devote time to, environmental causes, while South Korean students differ on socio-economic correlates of such behaviour. In a global society, understanding determinants of environmental volunteer participation is critical to the management of environmental NGOs that are involved in broad-based and participatory planning, educating stakeholders and legitimising environmental advocacy.

  • Understanding public awareness of nonprofit organizations: Exploring the awareness–confidence relationship. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 19(3), 187-199. McDougle, L. (2014).

    • [Abstract]: Public confidence has often been viewed as a critical indicator of legitimacy within the nonprofit sector. Indeed, confidence is believed to be among one of the sector’s most important commodities. Surveys, however, have shown that the public does not always have much confidence in the performance of nonprofit organizations. Although this lack of confidence is certainly concerning, few studies have assessed whether the public actually has any awareness of what nonprofit organizations are, and no studies have examined the personal characteristics associated with more (or less) nonprofit awareness. Thus, by using individual-level data from a survey of public attitudes toward nonprofits in San Diego County (n=1002), the purpose of this study was to explore how individual characteristics relate to nonprofit awareness and to examine the extent to which awareness of the sector influences confidence in the performance of nonprofit organizations. The findings from the study indicate that nonprofit awareness varies by several individual-level characteristics—with many of those likely to be the most dependent on nonprofit services being the least aware of the sector. The findings also indicate that awareness of the sector is the most significant predictor of confidence in the performance of nonprofits.

  • Nonprofits and the promotion of civic engagement: A conceptual framework for understanding the ‘civic footprint’ of nonprofits within local communities. Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research, 5(1), 57-75. Shier, M. McDougle, L., & Handy, F. (2014).

    • [Abstract]: The literature suggests that nonprofit organizations provide civic benefits by promoting engagement within local communities. However, there exists minimal empirical evidence describing the ways in which nonprofits actually undertake this role. In order to address this omission, we conducted interviews with personnel of nonprofit organizations in one rural community in the United States. Our preliminary findings indicate that nonprofit organizations promote civic engagement through programs and activities that: 1) engage volunteers and donors; 2) bring community members together; 3) collaborate with organizations within and beyond the community; and 4) promote community education and awareness. Together, these findings help to develop a working model to understand the civic footprint of nonprofit organizations with methodological implications for future research that would seek to measure the extent to which nonprofits promote civic engagement.

  • Health outcomes and volunteering: The moderating role of religiosity. Social Indicators Research, 117(2), 337-351. McDougle, L., Handy, F., Konrath, S., & Walk, M. (2013).

    • [Abstract]: In this paper, we examine whether and what extent public and private forms of religiosity act as moderators of the volunteering and well-being relationship in mid- to later-life. We use data from the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (n=1,805). We analyzed the relationships between volunteering and indicators of well-being (self-rated physical and mental health), and tested the moderating effects of public and private religiosity on the volunteering and well-being relationship. Our findings suggest that salubrious effects of volunteering on the self-perceived physical and mental health of middle-aged and older-aged adults varied by their participation in different forms of religiosity. In particular, volunteers who engaged in more public forms of religiosity reported significantly better physical and mental health than non-volunteers who engaged in these forms of religiosity. In other words, individuals who were actively engaged public forms of religious practices and who volunteered, maximized the associated health benefits.

  • Individual- and community-level determinants of public attitudes toward nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 43(4), 672-692. McDougle, L., & Lam, M. (2013).

    • [Abstract]: It is often suggested that nonprofit organizations positively impact our local communities. Studies, however, have consistently shown that the distribution of these organizations varies considerably from one community to the next. These differences have led some scholars to begin raising serious concern about the degree of “charitable equity” across communities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore how the makeup of a community’s nonprofit sector affects the views of those who potentially depend on nonprofit services. Specifically, using data from a countywide survey of public attitudes toward nonprofits in southern California (n=1,002), we examined whether differences in the distribution of nonprofits affected individuals’ confidence in nonprofit performance as well as their awareness of what nonprofit organizations even are. Findings indicated that nonprofit density was strongly related to awareness of the sector, while awareness was, in turn, strongly related to confidence in nonprofit performance.

  • Generation green: Understanding the motivations and mechanisms influencing young adults’ environmental volunteering. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 16(4) 325–341. McDougle, L., Greenspan, I., &, Handy, F. (2011).

    • [Abstract]: Environmental issues are particularly salient for today’s generation of young adults. Indeed, many have suggested that it will be this generation that will lead the environmental movement forward. Therefore, this study examines the motivations and mechanisms that influence proclivity and intensity of young adults’ environmental volunteerism. Using a survey of environmental attitudes and behaviors of college students at a large urban Canadian university (n=1 372), we assess why today’s young adults volunteer for the environment and the factors that motivate their commitment. Our findings suggest that young adults who engage in pro-environmental behaviors in general, as well as those who volunteer for other types of nonprofit organizations, are more likely to volunteer for environmental nonprofit organizations. Moreover, we find that social aspects of volunteering are the strongest positive predictor of the intensity of volunteerism in environmental groups.

Book Chapters

  • Nonprofit income portfolio analysis. The Encyclopedia of Nonprofit Management, Leadership, and Governance. Mao, H., & McDougle, L. (forthcoming).

    • [Definitions]: Income portfolio analysis involves a detailed examination of the performance, composition, and characteristics of an organization's source(s) of revenue. Nonprofit income portfolio analysis applies this examination to nonprofit organizations. Revenue is the total amount of money an organization obtains from various sources. Income represents total profits, or net income, after expenses are deducted from revenue.

  • Community-engaged pedagogies: Possibilities for undergraduate public affairs and administration education. In M. Hamidullah (Ed.), Undergraduate Public Affairs Education: Educating Future Generations of Public and Nonprofit Administrators. Routledge Publishing. Hung, W., & McDougle, L. (2021)

    • [Abstract]: Community-engaged pedagogies are presented as forms of experiential learning methods that integrate community service with classroom teaching and learning in ways that promote reflection and action, cultivate civic awareness and responsibility, and stimulate skill-building for future careers. This chapter is a broad overview of community-engaged pedagogy (CEP) and its impact on a variety of outcomes. The increasingly popular form of CEP is service-learning where students engage in community service projects through reflective thinking and reciprocal relationships. In other words, students are given ample opportunities to step back and evaluate their actions in the context of mutually-beneficial relationships between themselves and faculty, and themselves and diverse community partners. While service-learning expresses itself in myriad forms, one that has gradually become important is experiential philanthropy. Here, students learn by giving—they give grants to selected nonprofits addressing consequential social problems and in turn become educated, engaged citizens, and leaders.

  • The critical pedagogy of nonprofit management education: Teaching for social justice. In H. Carpenter, & K. Bezboruah (Eds.), Teaching Nonprofit Management. Edward Elgar Publishing. Mason, D., Jones, J., McDougle, L., Suarez, C. (2020).

    • [Abstract]: Nonprofit organizations often exist to serve vulnerable, marginalized, and underrepresented communities. Yet a lack of diversity and inclusion plagues the nonprofit sector. This chapter argues that when instructors engage in more “critical” perspectives, students of nonprofit management will not only be able to consider questions of power and privilege within nonprofit organizations, but will also be able to understand the impact of power and privilege imbalances within the communities that they serve. It provides a theoretical framework for critical pedagogies, and offers two exercise that instructors may use to provide examples of the way critical pedagogy can inform nonprofit management education (NME).

  • Experiential philanthropy. In P. Prysmakova, D. R. Vienne, & A. Farazmand (Eds.), Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. Springer Publishing. Xu, C., Li, H., & McDougle, L. (2017).

    • [Definition]: Experiential philanthropy is an innovative service-learning pedagogy in nonprofit management education. The pedagogy is intended to integrate academic learning with community engagement by allowing students an opportunity to study social problems and nonprofit organizations and then make decisions about directly or indirectly investing funds in them. Ultimately, experiential philanthropy is intended to teach students not only about issues associated with the management of nonprofit organizations but also about how to evaluate philanthropic responses to social issues.