Individual- and community-level factors associated with voluntary participation. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. Lam, M., Grasse, N., & McDougle, L. (accepted).
[Abstract]: Voluntary participation in local groups or organizations varies by individual and across communities. Few studies examine the influence of structural resources on voluntary participation, with prior studies often considering it a single, binary action. Drawing from three data sources, we examined the extent to which individual-level and community-level factors—including the geographic presence of nonprofit organizations—were associated with voluntary participation. We model participation as two distinct actions and estimate the likelihood of respondents participating in one organization compared to the likelihood of participating in multiple organizations. We found individual characteristics such as homeownership, marriage, and better health were associated with participation in only one group or organization. Identifying as White, having some college education, more children per household, and church attendance were positively associated with participating in one group or organization and subsequent groups. At the community level, nonprofit organizations’ presence was positively associated with voluntary participation.
On teaching philanthropy. Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing. McDougle, L. (online first).
[Abstract]: This commentary focuses on the teaching of philanthropy using an innovative pedagogy known as experiential philanthropy. Experiential philanthropy allows students to study social issues and nonprofit organizations and then make decisions about awarding funds to nonprofits working to address the issues they learned about. The pedagogy is considered to be transformative for students across a variety of disciplines (e.g., business administration, marketing, public administration, and social work). In this commentary, I raise an important consideration for those who teach philanthropy using the pedagogy and I conclude by issuing a call to action.
Service-learning in higher education and prosocial identity formation. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. McDougle, L., & Li, H. (online first).
[Abstract]: For most nonprofits, their effectiveness, sustainability, and survival all depend on the willingness of individuals to behave in prosocial ways, e.g., by giving time, money, and/or resources to various organizations and causes. Scholars have, therefore, long sought to identify predictors of prosocial behaviors; and, one consistently significant variable in this quest has been prosocial role-identity. Indeed, the strength of this identity, studies have shown, positively predicts participation in a variety of prosocial activities. Despite this significance, research on service-learning, a widely utilized pedagogical practice intended to prepare prosocially active and engaged citizens, has been largely disconnected from the literature on identity motivated behavior. Yet, this literature provides a strong conceptual foundation for understanding why, when, how, and for whom participation in service-learning will be associated with positive changes in prosocial identities—and, ultimately sustained participation in role-related prosocial behaviors. In this article, we connect these literatures and propose a model.
Experiential philanthropy in public affairs education: Learning for lives of giving? Journal of Public Affairs Education. McDougle, L., Li, H., & Rossi, G. (online first).
[Abstract]: Globally, public affairs programs are designed to meet dual educational purposes. On the one hand, these professional degree programs are intended to educate students for careers in service to the public. On the other hand, these programs are also intended to educate students about our common responsibility to contribute to the betterment of society through civic participation and engagement. Not surprisingly, then, public affairs programs often include a curriculum emphasis on philanthropy; and, as a means of teaching philanthropy, experiential philanthropy has become an increasingly popular pedagogical strategy. Despite growing use of the pedagogy cross-nationally and consistent evidence of its short-term efficacy, there has been limited evidence of the pedagogy’s long-term impact. Therefore, in this study, we explore whether experiential philanthropy, as a pedagogical strategy within public affairs programs in the US and China, is associated with long-term philanthropic and prosocial outcomes of former course participants.
Exploring individual predictors of variation in public awareness of expressive and instrumental nonprofit brands. Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing. Hamidullah, M., Yun, C., McDougle, L., Shon, J., Yang, H., & Davis, A. (2021)
[Abstract]: Expressive and instrumental functions provide a way to classify activities that take place in the nonprofit sector. These functions also provide a way to better understand individual's philanthropic involvement with certain types of nonprofit organizations. Despite the usefulness of these classifications, only a few studies have explored demographic, social, and ideological differences in individuals' philanthropic involvement along expressive and instrumental dimensions; and, no studies have explored differences in public awareness of nonprofits along these dimensions. Such awareness, though, could likely be an important precursor to an individual's philanthropic involvement. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore whether variables known to be associated with variation in philanthropic involvement are also associated with variation in awareness of, what we categorize as, expressive and instrumental nonprofit brands. Using data from a survey of public awareness of, and attitudes toward, nonprofit organizations in San Diego County (n=1002), our findings show that individuals are more aware of instrumental nonprofit brands than they are of expressive nonprofit brands. However, there are important individual differences to consider. We discuss the theoretical relevance of our findings and offer several practical recommendations for nonprofit administrators.
Nonprofit income portfolio analysis. The Encyclopedia of Nonprofit Management, Leadership, and Governance. Mao, H., & McDougle, L. (forthcoming).
[Definitions]: Income portfolio analysis involves a detailed examination of the performance, composition, and characteristics of an organization's source(s) of revenue. Nonprofit income portfolio analysis applies this examination to nonprofit organizations. Revenue is the total amount of money an organization obtains from various sources. Income represents total profits, or net income, after expenses are deducted from revenue.